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Section highlightHouses into homes This report details findings to emerge from the evaluation during the first six months of delivery (April to September 2012).
Written Statement - Update on tobacco policy »Standardised packaging of tobacco products and Sub Committees on The Smoke-free Premises etc. (Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2012.Learn more »
Industry and government plan for a healthy future for farming in Wales
Farmers and Welsh Government will come together today to plan for a healthy and vibrant agricultural industry.
- Statement from First Minister of Wales, Carwyn Jones, on the Woolwich attack
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- Industry and government plan for a healthy future for farming in Wales
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The Welsh Government has followed the principles of openness in government for many years. Find out how you can make a freedom of information request or see requests that have already been made.
Sky lanterns: environmental and risk assessment »To establish an evidence base to help any future policy decisions on sky lanterns and helium balloons.Learn more »
- Future management of private water supply pipes
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Featured consultation »Implementing the Domestic Fire Safety (Wales) Measure 2011
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Section highlightFurther and Higher Education (Governance and Information) (Wales) Bill 2013
Removes a number of technical restrictions and controls on colleges without changing the principal powers of colleges to provide further, higher and secondary education.
Legislative programme 2012 - 2013 »
Addressing the Assembly in the Senedd today, the First Minister, Carwyn Jones, detailed the eight bills in the Welsh Government’s 5-year Legislative Programme that will be brought forward during the second year of the Welsh Assembly.Learn more »
Section highlightCommunity Infrastructure Levy
Local authorities can charge a Community Infrastructure Levy on new developments to support the infrastructure needed.
2nd Supplementary Budget 2012-13 »
Proposes a number of changes to the 1st Supplementary Budget for 2012-13, which was published on 26 June 2012.Learn more »
Johne’s disease is a chronic gastrointestinal infection of adult ruminants characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, emaciation and eventual death.
What is Johne's disease?
Johne’s disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, often known as Map, and is a chronic gastrointestinal infection of adult ruminants characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, emaciation and eventual death. It is not notifiable in Great Britain although it is in Northern Ireland. It has a worldwide distribution.
Consequences of Johne’s disease
The financial losses from reduced milk yield and early culling are significant. In addition the health and welfare of affected animals is compromised. Infected cattle are more susceptible to other diseases such as mastitis and, because they have difficulty maintaining body condition, their fertility is poor. There is the possibility of transmission to humans via contaminated milk. Concern has been raised that mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) may be causing CROHN’s disease in humans as pathology is similar. However various studies have failed to demonstrate a causative effect.
How is Map spread?
Diseased animals pass large numbers of Map in their faeces, so a single animal can pose a high risk to susceptible animals and to calves in the herd. Diseased animals may also excrete Map in milk and colostrum. Cattle remain susceptible throughout their lives but are most vulnerable in the first few months of life. Calves may be infected in the womb but are more commonly infected via:
- drinking contaminated colostrum
- ingesting dung that may be present on unclean teats
- contaminated feed; and
- contaminated environment or water supplies
How to spot Johne’s disease?
Map is a slow growing organism. After infection, it may be years before the infected animal becomes ill. At the early stages of infection, the only way to confirm whether an animal has Johne’s Disease is to carry out blood tests. These do not detect all infected animals, but at this stage are more likely to identify infection than tests for the organism itself. Signs of the disease are rarely seen before two to three years of age. Generally, there is a period of reduced milk output or fertility well before the animals begin to show signs of advanced disease. These signs include persistent and profuse diarrhoea and significant weight loss, and are seen most commonly in animals at three to five years of age. Once signs of disease have developed, examination of a dung sample through a microscope is a useful way to confirm the diagnosis.
Report on an Integrated Strategy To Determine the Herd Level Prevalence of Johne’s Disease in the UK Dairy Herd.
A statistically based survey was commissioned by the UK Zoonoses, Animal Diseases and Infections Group (UKZADI).
For more information and a copy of the final report, click here (external link).